Code of Good Research Conduct
The University’s Code of Good Research Conduct sets out the University’s commitment to research integrity and its expectations of those who conduct research in its name.
Researchers can expect of the University:
i. A strong commitment to research integrity from its senior management
Research Integrity is given priority in the University’s strategic plan, Manchester 2020. Leadership in taking forward this priority is provided by the Academic Director for Research Governance, Ethics and Integrity.
ii. Clearly stated standards and expectations
This Code of Good Research Conduct sets out the University’s expectations of its researchers. It is supported by a suite of policies and guidelines clarifying the standards of good research practice expected by the University.
iii. Support to help researchers comply with standards of good research conduct
To provide administrative support to enable researchers to conduct research in accordance with the standards of good research conduct. For researchers required to comply with regulatory standards, the University’s Research Governance, Ethics and Integrity Team provides information and support for individuals conducting research in regulated areas such as clinical trials and research involving human tissue, human or animal subjects.
iv. Support to develop excellent researchers
The University is committed to providing suitable learning, training and mentoring opportunities to encourage the development of its researchers. This includes mandatory research integrity training to be completed every 3 years.
v. Oversight of the implementation of the Code of Good Research Conduct
Research will be monitored or audited based on an assessment of risk so that the University can be assured of compliance with regulations and standards. The University will report annually to its Board of Governors on the implementation of its Code of Good Research Conduct.
vi. A robust and fair approach to dealing with allegations of research misconduct
The University is responsible for investigating any concerns about the conduct of research undertaken in its name raised about any of its staff or students, whether current or former, irrespective of who is funding or sponsoring the research in question (other than in exceptional cases where, for example, a student is also a member of staff of another organisation which will undertake its own investigation). The Code of Practice for Investigating Concerns about the Conduct in Research may also apply to any person authorised to undertake research in the University or to use University facilities for the purposes of research (such as visiting, emeritus or honorary staff) and those carrying out research under the supervision/direction of a University of Manchester member of staff.
Where a concern about the conduct of research arises about a current student, this would normally be dealt with under Regulation XVII, in accordance with the procedures outlined in Academic Malpractice: Guidance on the Handling of Cases. However, if the alleged conduct affects a published piece of research work or the supervisor is implicated in the complaint then the Code of Practice for Investigating Concerns about the Conduct in Research would apply.
The University expects the highest standards of research integrity from the researchers it supports. This includes, but is not limited to, people who conduct research as employees; as an independent contractor or consultant; as a research student; as a visiting or emeritus member of staff; or as a member of staff on a joint clinical or honorary contract, irrespective of the sources of their funding, their area of research, their experience as researchers, whether they are lone scholars or members of a research team or where the research is to be conducted. It is the responsibility of all researchers and staff supporting research to conduct their research in accordance with the ten Principles set out below and in compliance with relevant University policies.
Principles of Good Research Conduct:
i. Excellence: Researchers are expected to strive for excellence when conducting their research; aiming to design, conduct, produce and disseminate work of the highest quality and ethical standards.
ii. Honesty: Researchers must be honest in respect of their own actions and in their responses to the actions of others. This applies to the whole range of research activity including:
- applying for funding;
- experimental and protocol design;
- generating, recording, analysing and interpreting data;
- publishing and exploiting results;
- acknowledging the direct and indirect contributions of colleagues, collaborators and others;
- and reporting cases of suspected misconduct in a responsible and appropriate manner.
iii. Openness: Researchers must be open when conducting and communicating their research (subject to the terms and conditions of any research contracts and the protection of intellectual property and commercial exploitation).
- the disclosure of any conflicts of interest;
- the reporting of research data collection methods;
- the analysis and interpretation of data;
- making all research findings widely available (including sharing negative results as appropriate);
- disseminating research in a way that will have the widest impact;
- and promoting public engagement/involvement in research.
iv. Rigour: Researchers must be thorough and meticulous in performing their research. Care must be taken:
- to use the appropriate methods;
- to adhere to an agreed protocol (where appropriate);
- when drawing interpretations and conclusions from the research;
- and when communicating the results.
v. Safety: All research should be conducted in a manner which, so far as is reasonably practicable, is safe for researchers, participants, the University and the environment. Researchers must familiarise themselves, and comply with, the obligations set down by the University in its policies and guidelines, as well as relevant legislation and regulatory practice in this area.
vi. Ethical responsibility: Researchers should have respect for all participants in, and subjects of, research including humans, animals, the environment and cultural objects. The University expects all researchers to consider the ethical implications of their research and to be aware of their responsibilities to society, the environment, their profession, the University, research participants and the organisation(s) funding the research.
vii. Responsible management: Established researchers are responsible for nurturing researchers of the future; fostering a constructive and supportive environment without undue pressure and ensuring that appropriate supervision, mentoring and training are provided.
viii. Regulatory compliance: Researchers are expected to make themselves aware of, and comply with, any legislation or regulations that govern their research. This includes, but is not limited to:
- Data Protection
- Clinical Trials Regulations
- Human Tissue Act
ix. Professional standards: Researchers should observe the standards of practice set out in guidelines published by professional societies, funding agencies and other relevant bodies, where appropriate and available. They must ensure that they have the necessary skills and training to conduct the research.
x. Report research misconduct: Researchers should be aware of the extreme seriousness of research misconduct. Staff and students of the University have an obligation to report suspected research misconduct in accordance with the University’s Code of Practice for Investigating Concerns about the Conduct of Research.