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Terms and acronyms in alphabetical order frequently used on the website

Basic scientific research

Experimental or theoretical research undertaken to acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena or observable facts. It is not research towards a specific practical aim or objective.  In practical terms, a research can be considered basic scientific research if it is classed as low Technology Readiness Level (TRL), it has no links to industry and there is no collaborator involved, which is imposing any conditions on publishing the results for the research.

Controlled items

Goods or technology specifically listed on the UK Strategic Export Control Lists, which is a consolidated list of strategic military and dual-use items that require export authorisation.


A type of exemption that can be applied to software and technology (but not goods) which are listed on the UK Strategic Export Control Lists. For example, information may be decontrolled if it is already in the public domain or if it is classified as basic scientific research.  Both decontrols cannot be applied if there are any concerns on the end-user. 

Dual-use items

Goods, software and technology, which can be used for both civil and military applications.

End-Use control

Controls that apply when there are reasonable grounds to believe that items may be intended for use in connection with weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (eg chemicals, biological agents or technology that might be used in a nuclear weapons facility) and/or for military purposes in an embargoed country.  

End user

The person/organisation who processes or uses the goods, software and technology being exported/transferred.


Organization/institution/University/business company/government department that you do collaborate, work or interact with. 

Export Controls Compliance (ECC)

All actions concerning the University’s compliance with Export Control Legislation and relevant guidance. 

Export control legislation

All legislation concerning the control of exports and any subsequent amendments thereto including, but not limited to, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Export Control Act 2002, Export Control Order 2008, EU Council Regulation 1236/2005, Export of Radioactive Sources Control Order 2006, Export Control Order 2008 (SI 2008/3231), Dual-Use Regulation (EC) 428/2009, Commission delegated regulation (EU) 2016/1969.

Key countries

List of countries under current trade sanctions, including arms embargoes and other restrictions.

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

This is the international export control regime to limit the proliferation of delivery systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction.

Personal liability

It is a criminal offence to breach export controls and responsibility for compliance lies with the individual exporting/transferring the controlled goods/software and/or technology as well as with the University. Academics are responsible for complying with export controls in relation to the export/transfer of their research and/or course content and may be liable for any sanction resulting from non-compliance.

Public domain

The public domain refers to information which has been previously published and is freely accessible (nb: intention to publish does not put that data in the public domain).


Specific information necessary for the development, production or use of goods or software. This includes, but is not limited to, blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, or manuals and instructions, research data, howsoever recorded.

UK export

Physical or intangible movement of items out of the UK territory. This includes transportation of the items overseas, carriage of data on a laptop or any other means of electronic storage on a trip, transfer of information by facsimile, email, telephone, text message, videoconferencing, clouds, servers or any other means of electronic transfer.

US export

Physical or intangible movement of items out of the US territory.  These set of controls apply to controlled goods, software and technology – even when they are in the UK.    


  • ECJU - Export Control Joint Unit (GOV.UK)
  • EUA - End User Advice
  • CLC - Control List Classification
  • OGEL - Open General Export Licence
  • OIEL - Open Individual Export Licence
  • SIEL - Standard Individual Export Licence
  • OITAL- Open Individual Technical Assistance Licence
  • WMD – Weapons of Mass Destruction